Micro vascular Surgery is an operation that requires the use of an operating microoscope, it is performed by a team of plastic & reconstructive surgeons. In such procedures, A flap that is a unit of tissue (skin, fat, muscle, or bone) which is transferred from one site (donor site) to another (recipient site) while maintaining its own blood supply. During a free flap procedure, free tissue transfer, a surgeon detaches at least one vein and one artery (along with the said unit of tissue) from a specific body region, and reattaches the divided artery and vein to another region. A free flap, or free tissue transfer, involves the removal of tissue from an entirely different part of the body. This procedure requires optimal blood supply and advanced micro vascular surgery.
A Swedish otolaryngologist, Carl-Olof Siggesson Nylén (1892–1978), was the father of microsurgery. Modern microvascular techniques are credited to Jacobsen and Suarez who borrowed the use of the operating microscope from their otologic colleagues, in the 1950s. The most obvious developments have been procedures developed to allow anastomosis of successively smaller blood vessels and nerves (typically 1 mm in diameter).